The black death or the bubonic plague were so devastating Europe lost about a third of their population and horrified and confused the survivors. It killed sometimes within hours of infection and the way its victims went out was gruesome so many people became very preoccupied by the idea of death which affected art at the time. Danse Macabre mentioned in the text is a good example of this as it depicts the living regardless of status, age, or gender all being led to the grave by walking skeletons and cadavers. No matter who you were you were not safe from the plague.
So many people had died that there was huge labor shortages which did not help fix the unrest and panic the few workers that didn’t die however got better living standards later such as more food, land, and pay for their work. Feudalism also declined as a result of this as among the common people they had a greater chance of moving up the social ladder where before they weren’t even allowed to leave their land previously.
The hundred year war started because of the confusion around who would be the king of France since the king at the time didn’t have a known successor and the king England believed he had that right. This is partly because previous kings held land inside of France and believed he still had a claim to those. The war itself wasn’t just a centuries-long war like it was called it was instead a series of battles followed by long years of peace in between making it more a series of smaller wars instead. These battles got a lot of the aristocracy killed in the fighting which further weakened the nobility.
When Joan of Arc appeared and got involved she was good for morale and bolstered the French’s spirit since they were not doing so well for the most part she herself was not responsible for the end of the war or even responsible for that man’s victories. Most of it had to do with her generals and the fact the English had smaller armies and fewer resources than France so even if they won a lot of battles they were slowly being bled dry. Regardless the hundred-year war can be summed up as France and England is defined as two separate peoples and nations since prior the two were highly connected and often spoke each other’s language.