1500 words or longer(double-spaced pages, font size 12, Times New Roman)
A. identify an issue (write a research topic and detail the issue)
B. refine a research question (a specific question)
C. draft an outline (for introduction)
D. elaborate the importance of this question which clarifies a loophole (background and
E. make your argument and describe your thoughts on issues
F. support the argument with at least five different academic sources (e.g., ecological, social,
and technological backgrounds) and support your research topic in relating sources to the
G. concluding with alternative proposals
The topic is already been chosen, please see the topic and outline
below to expand this research paper. Please use specific data to
support this paper.
Topic: Air Pollution and Health Impacts in South Korea from 2010 to 2020
In this paper, the research topic focuses on determining the impact of air pollution on
public health in South Korea from 2010 to 2020. Air pollution is a major health concern in South
Korea and the globe. It leads to individuals being exposed to high levels of toxicants in the
atmosphere. This adversely impacts their health as everyone is prone to contracting various
infections. Therefore, exposure to air pollutants leads to both short and long term health effects
on an individual. It is more severe for those with already existing sickness, especially chronic.
How do the current patterns of air pollution contribute to various public health issues in South
Air pollution in South Korea continues to worsen, and this highly impacts the citizens’
wellbeing. It is a result of diverse factors that narrow down to human actions. This has a
toxicological effect on health and the environment. Further, it has led to the progression of
various diseases in South Korea, including asthma, ventricular hypertrophy, Parkinson’s diseases,
psychological complications, among others.
Research Question Significance
The research question is essential for the study as it provides a significant platform in
studying public health issues and how air pollution has contributed to such. Human actions,
especially in the industrialization sector, have led to the increased release of toxicants into the
atmosphere. Also, poor regulation of various emissions by the relevant authorities and policies
has led to the worsening of the air pollution levels and issues. In South Korea, Seoul city is
among the major cities with the highest air population rates, as depicted by NASA.
Major Air Pollution Causes in South Korea
In Korea, air quality is monitored for six pollutants: PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO2, SO2, and
CO (NASA,2016). Compare to other pollutants, particulate matter (PM), especially particles
smaller than 2.5 microns, are more easily to be inhale by human and deeply into their lungs and
thus present much greater threats to public health and respiratory problems. This paper will use
particulate matter as measurement to identify the air pollution causes in South Korea. According
to Donald (2019), South Korea’s increasing air pollution is due to the increased spreading of
yellow clouds of dust from China. The massive production and manufacturing factories and coalfired power plants emit more dust, thus polluting the air in South Korea. Park and Han (2014)
estimate that the long-range transport of air pollutants from China accounts for approximately
26–30 percent of annual PM10 in South Korea, respectively. Secondly, the high traffics,
factories, and power plants in South Korea lead to the emission of unpurified and hazardous
gases into the air, thus causing the pollution increment (Hermes, 2012). Further, fossil fuel
combustion enhances the air pollution component (Oh, Yoo & Yoo, 2019). Also, the Asian dust
storms and prevailing winds, especially during the dry season, lead to an increase in air
pollutants. This causes the majority of the high morbidity and mortality rates relating to
respiratory aspects (Park, Yoon, Na & Song, 2015).
Public health issues caused by air pollution
The World Health Organization has estimated that the number of mortality caused by air
pollution close to about 7 million people (WHO,2014). For example, exposure to sulfur dioxide
causes chronic lung disease and respiratory disorders. Exposure to ozone and particulate matter
are associated with the occurrence of the respiratory and circulatory diseases and increase in
mortality (Pope, 2002). According to Leem, Kim & Kim (2015), in 2010, air pollution caused
15.9% of total mortality or approximately 15,346 attributable cases per year in the Seoul
metropolitan area. Particulate air pollution also accounted for: 12,511 hospitalized cases of
respiratory disease; 20,490 new cases of chronic bronchitis (adults); 278,346 episodes of acute
Potential alternatives to reduce health impacts and air pollution include wearing pollution
masks (Rafaj et al., 2018). Secondly, it consists of the purchasing of air purifiers and installation
both at home and in cars. It is a long-term solution, although it can be quite expensive for middle
and low-class households (Trnka, 2020). Lastly, governmental policies and regulations will assist
in cleaning the air through the provision of modern purification systems (Chinn & Sehulster,
2019). This also includes the regulation of gases used in vehicles and inspection of
industrialization processes and emissions (Oh, Yoo & Yoo, 2019).
Chinn, R. Y., & Sehulster, L. (2019). Guidelines for environmental infection control in healthcare facilities; recommendations of CDC and Healthcare Infection Control Practices
Advisory Committee (HICPAC)
Donald, K. (2019). Chinese Yellow Dust Or Korean Factory Fumes? NASA Teams Cruise For
Hermes, J. (2012). How Traffic Jams Affect Air Quality. Environmental Leader, Inc.
Oh, I., Yoo, W. J., & Yoo, Y. (2019). Impact and Interactions of Policies for Mitigation of Air
Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea. International journal of
environmental research and public health, 16(7), 1161.
Park, J. O., Yoon, S., Na, M. H., & Song, H. C. (2015). The effects of air pollution on mortality
in South Korea. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 26, 62-65. doi:10.1016/
Rafaj, P., Kiesewetter, G., Gül, T., Schöpp, W., Cofala, J., Klimont, Z., … & Cozzi, L. (2018).
Outlook for clean air in the context of sustainable development goals. Global
Environmental Change, 53, 1-11.
Trnka, D. (2020). Policies, regulatory framework, and enforcement for air quality management:
The case of Korea. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
NASA. (2016). KORUS-AQ: An International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea.
KORUS-AQ, 1–40, espo.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/documents/KORUS-AQ-ENG.
Park R., Han G. (2014). Contribution of long-range transported air pollution from China to
particulate matter over Korean peninsula. Magazine of KOSHAM, 14(2), 26–36.
WHO (World Health Organization) (2014). Burden of disease from the joint effects of
Household and Ambient Air Pollution for 2012. Geneva, Switzerland
Pope CA 3rd. Burnette RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, Thurston GD. (2002). Lung
cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and longterm exposure to find particulate air
pollution. JAMA. 207:1132-1141.
Leem, J. H., Kim, S. T., & Kim, H. C. (2015). Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for
2(nd) air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Annals of
occupational and environmental medicine, 27, 7. doi.org/10.1186/