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When writing a qualitative study, Creswell and Poth (2018) suggest the authors of the research must attend to two ethical issues: application of appropriate reporting strategies and compliance with ethical publishing. When considering application of appropriate reporting strategies, Creswell and Poth suggest writers consider reporting language that is appropriate for the intended audience in order to minimize limiting access to the research data due unclear or comprehendible language. Compliance with ethical publishing practices are wide reaching and can include falsification of any research element, plagiarism, duplicating publications, and creating conflicts of interest without justification (Creswell & Poth, 2018). Each of these can be minimized by working with integrity and following best practices.
When crafting a qualitative research study, there are several broad writing strategies. Creswell and Poth (2018) describe five writing strategies that qualitative researchers often use, these include (a) narrative, (b) chronological approach, (c) writing that narrows then expands the focus, (d) research that relies very heavily on description of events, and lastly (e) writing that advances a small number of themes. As sited in Creswell and Poth (2018) Glesne (2016) describes narrative writing as writing that tells a story and often blends fiction, journalism, and scholarly studies.
Within each of the five approaches to inquiry for qualitative research there are unique writing structures. Creswell and Poth (2018) link approaches with their respective overall writing structures: Narrative, Phenomenology, Grounded Theory, Ethnography, and Case study. Examining Narrative inquiry approach, the writer has several overall writing structures to which they can use including three-dimensional space inquiry model (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000 as cited in Cresswell & Poth, 2018). This approach caught my eye for the level of complete are through detail; backward and forward, inward and outward, and a grounded the experiences within a defined space (Creswell & Poth, 2018).
Clandinin, D.J. & Connelly, F.M. (2000). Narrative inquiry; Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco, CA; Jossey-Bass
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). SAGE.
Glesne, C. (2016). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
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What ethical issues require attention when writing a qualitative study?
Creswell and Poth identify the ethical issues that require attention to be the following a) obtaining permission for the use of unpublished instruments, procedures or other proprietary documentation, b) proper citations, c) preparation to answer questions about the institutional review of the study, d) preparation to answer editorial questions about the informed consent and debriefing procedures, e) prior reviews of all authors and agreement on the responsibility of the study, f) protection of confidentiality, g) agreement to the order of authorship and h) permission for the use of copyrighted material (Creswell & Poth ).
What are several broad writing strategies associated with crafting a qualitative study?
The authors reveal writing strategies for a research study to be a) narrative in which the author tells a story to readers, b) chronological, c) expansion of focus, d) expanding focus by using a metaphorical camera lenses and e) descriptive methods.
What are the larger writing structures used within each of the five approaches of inquiry?
Larger writing structures in qualitative research include a) narrative, b) phenomenology, c) ethnography, d) grounded theory and e) case study.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.
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There are many ethical considers to be made when writing qualitative studies. Due to the nature of qualitative research, ethics is a necessary consideration for all publications. Creswell (2016) compiled a set of questions to be considered by qualitative researchers. These questions are designed to aid researchers in providing “reports that are honest and trustworthy, seek permissions as needed, ensure same material is not used for more than one publication, and disclose of funders and beneficiaries of the research” (Creswell & Poth, 2018).
Several writing strategies are listed in our text from telling stories to other qualitative forms such as chronological approaches. The researcher must write to a diverse audience and each report or study should in some way capture the attention of the reader. The writing strategies also provide suggests on how to minimize the ethical issues that can arise from each of these strategies.
Cresewell & Proth, 2018, list in Table 9.2 the five approaches of inquiry as part of the larger writing structure. This includes the following approaches: narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, ethnographic and the case study approach. The narrative approach is described as a flexible process, using chronologic order and reporting. The phenomenological approach uses themes and an analytical start to the report. The grounded theory focuses on “theory and arguments that support it” (Charmaz, 2014). The ethnographic approach “description, analysis, and interpretation” (Wolcott, 1994). Finally the case study approach include “alternative structures based on linear and nonlinear approaches” (Yin, 2014). For our team research, I conducted the interviews and found that our questions followed both a narrative and a chronological approach.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.
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